Manzanilla (SAN-1), Cocos Bay, Trinidad

De archeologische vindplaats van Manzanilla (SAN-1) ligt in Cocos Bay aan de oostkust van Trinidad (WI). Vanaf 1997-2007 heeft een Leids onderzoeksteam (waaronder Dennis Nieweg en Marc Dorst) in opdracht van “The Archaeological Committee of Trinidad and Tobago” onderzoek gedaan naar deze vindplaats.  De vindplaats bevindt zich op een 15 meter hoge heuvel en omvat een gebied van ongeveer 50.000m2. Naar aanleiding van aardewerkvondsten en C14 analyses kon de site gedateerd worden in twee periodes namelijk het Laat (Cedrosan) Saladoid (rond 300-650 (Palo-Seco) na Chr.) en Arauquinoid (rond 650-1400 na Chr.).

Verschillende publicaties hebben intussen het levenslicht gezien voornamelijk over de menselijke resten van de SAN-1 site. Binnenkort wordt begonnen met de verdere  uitwerking van deze archeologische site.

Current state of research at the SAN 1 site

The 2006 fieldwork campaign was focused on the same area, which was examined in 2001, 2003 and 2004 (Dorst, Nieweg & Baetsen, 2003, Dorst, Nieweg & Altena, 2004, Dorst, & Altena, 2005). This is the northwestern habitation area in the middle part of the site.

The fieldwork program of 2001 revealed that at the selected location at the plateau a habitation location is present (Dorst, Nieweg, Baetsen, 2003). At this vacant space features of two distinct periods of habitation were found. These are the Saladoid Late Palo Seco Period (AD 350-650) and the succeeding Arauquinoid Period (AD 650-1400).
The Saladoid period is represented by an area consisting of the lower levels of a midden deposit. Below, in and around this midden are at least nine inhumations which are considered do be associated with this midden. For now, this midden configuration and associated burials are interpreted as the outer ring of a Saladoid village.
The second, Arauquinoid, period is represented by a small midden, one house structure with least 20 associated inhumations. Based on some two C14 radiocarbon analyses done by the Trent University of Calcary, Canada, the burials around this oval house structure date between AD 1290 en 1410. These features indicate the presence of a village ring.
In 2004 a large number of postholes were found, suggesting the presence of second, larger house structure. Only 2/3 of the supposed total area of this structure was excavated in 2004. Within the interior of this house one inhumation was located, one was found in one of the postholes of the wall and 11 (possible) associated inhumations were located outside this structure. For now, this structure is also dated in the Arauquinoid period, however this is not certain, since solid C14 dates for this structure are lacking.

An enlarged and more complete set of data makes comparison with other larger scale settlement excavations such as the Golden Rock site on St. Eustatius, Anse a la Gourde on Guadeloupe, the Heywood site on Barbados and the Tutu site on St. Thomas more reliable. Therefore research on this site in the near future is needed to understand the Saladoid and Arauquinoid composition.

Literature:

Boomert, A., M.C. Dorst, C.L. Hofman, M.L.P. Hoogland, D.C. Nieweg & A. Vredenbregt 1997. Preliminary report on an archaeological investigation of the Manzanilla 1 site, Trinidad. Unpublished typescript, U.L, Leiden. 1997.

Nieweg, D.C. 2000. Shells in Archaeology, Part I, II and CD rom. Unpublished Master Thesis, Leiden University.

Dorst, M.C., D.C. Nieweg & S. Baetsen, 2002. Preliminary research report. Archaeological investigations on the Pre-Columbian Manzanilla 1 (SAN-1) site. Phase II, inventory excavations on a vacant space, September 2001. Unpublished typescript.

Dorst, M.C., D.C. Nieweg & S. Baetsen, 2003. An excavation of a Amerindian habitation area. September 2001. Unpublished typescript for UWI Trinidad.

Nieweg, D.C. & M.C. Dorst, 2003. The Manzanilla 1 (SAN-1) site, Trinidad.Paper presented on the XIX Int. Congress for Caribbean Archaeology, Aruba, July 2001. Issued within Proceedings of the XIX Int. Congress for Caribbean Archaeology, Aruba, 2003.

Nieweg, D.C. 2003. The Faunal Remains of the 2001 Phase II campaign from the Manzanilla 1 (SAN-1) site, Trinidad, West Indies. Unpublished Typescript for UWI Trinidad.

Dorst, M.C., D.C. Nieweg & E. Altena, 2004. An excavation of a Amerindian habitation area. June 2003. Unpublished typescript for UWI Trinidad.

Dorst, M.C., D.C. Nieweg & E. Altena, 2004. Preliminary research report. Archaeological investigations on the Pre-Columbian Manzanilla 1 (SAN-1) site. Phase III, inventory excavations on a vacant space, September 2004. Unpublished typescript for UWI Trinidad.